Rights to property are generally conveyed by contract or succession, or by prescription.
A conveyance of real property must be recorded at the local Legal Affairs Bureau to be valid.
In some cases, where property rights were not recorded because someone acted in breach of trust or in bad faith, or failed in their duty to apply to record a transfer or who obstructed it, the courts will recognise and protect those unrecorded rights.
In England, for example, if someone holds a registered title to land, no-one can challenge this. The state guarantees it.
In Japan the state registers transfers, but does not guarantee that the transferee has a title that cannot be challenged. (No credibility)
Equally, it is only in very exceptional cases, and these are defined in law, that an unrecorded or unregistered property right can be asserted against a registered owner.
The information recorded on a title is legally assumed to be correct and is the best evidence of ownership. Registering a transfer does not guarantee ownership of the real property registered, in the cases of valid but unrecorded rights.
In theory, recording applies to leased property, but in practice registration of leases is not universal.
Recording also required where ownership of real property is claimed by prescription, based on adverse possession.