Introduction The compulsory education in Japan terminates when young people finish their secondary school at the age of 15, and over 80% of them continue to study at high school for 3 more years. This tendency gives the impression that education at high school is quite common, so this report is based on the premise above.
Recent trend Because of the recent decrease in childbirth, going to university in recent years is not as difficult as one in the past, so almost 60% of pupils who finish their high school education choose to go to university. This tendency shows Japan is a country that provides quite good standard of education for the young generation. The information of this rate can be seen on the ministry of education website (https://www.mext.go.jp/b_menu/shingi/chukyo/chukyo0/toushin/attach/1335605.htm). Furthermore, roughly 10% of young adults keep studying for a master degree after their bachelor degree is completed.
Vocational career On the other hand, the path of vocational career can still be possible in Japan. Those vocational experiences are generally found in a profession, such as medicine, the law, teaching, architecture, engineering and some others, where a professional qualification is required in addition to or instead of a degree. My Shiho-shoshi Lawyer qualification is one of vocational careers. Special licences funded by relevant ministries are well-recognised in society. It is difficult to collect all the information above at one source, but every ministry puts up their licensing information on their websites.
Conclusion In conclusion, the mainstream of education in Japan is to go to university, but thanks to the various vocational tests and qualifications, a wide range of career paths for the young is widely available in Japan.
Land Lease Rights have lower asset value than ownership, and it is commonly traded at around 60 to 70% of the market price as ownership in residential areas. The necessary expenses for a Land Lease Right are up-front payment as the purchase price, a contract renewal fee, a reconstruction consent fee, a change of condition consent fee and change of name consent fee due to inheritance or sale. Additionally, “Monthly rent” which a lessee pays on a regular basis while renting land is also required. The parties have discussed in advance about the conditions applying when selling the land lease, because the acceptance of the landowner will be needed at the time of sale and a name change consent fee will be charged.
Under the current Act on Land and Building Leases, there is a regulation called “Fixed Term Land Lease Right”. (定期借地権) In this regulation, the term of the Land Lease Right is determined and the contract will end at the fixed deadline, which there is no extension of the contract. In this scheme, when the land lease contract ends, the land surface should be cleared and returned to the landowner, and the lessee should undertake the cost of demolition of the building at their own cost.
However, the parties can agree with the special provisions for building transfer if the contract is agreed for thirty years or more. In this clause, a landowner promises to buy the building on the land that is the object of the Land Lease Right, which shall be transferred to the landowner for a reasonable price after the day that thirty years or more have passed since the contract was established. Land Lease Right will cease at the time of purchase.
Legal advice in connection with a lease agreement is essential, including drafting and preparing preliminary agreements.
Land and a building are each treated as separate real property in Japan.
Land rights are roughly divided into “Ownership” and “Land Lease Rights”. In Japan, conveyance of land is generally the transfer in “Ownership”. Ownership of real property means unlimited possession, and it means its permanent possession.
“Land Lease Rights ” is set up when obtaining use of the land from its landowner and building your own building on it. It means a “Right to borrow land”. The cost of “Land Lease Rights” is divided into two parts that together are “Up-front payment”, which is, firstly, to pay for purchasing the Land Lease Right, and also “Rent”, which is to be continually paid while renting the land.
Under the new Act on Land and Building Leases, there is a new regulation called “Fixed Term Land Lease Right”.(事業用定期借地権) This scheme is often used in a business purpose, because the term of the Land Lease Right is determined and the contract will end at the fixed deadline. In principle, when the land lease contract ends, the land surface should be cleared and returned to the landowner, and the lessee should undertake the cost of demolition of the building at his own cost.
This aims to construct and use buildings for business purposes, such as a road-side retail building, and the duration of this scheme is at least ten years or more but shorter than fifty years. A contract of this type shall be made by a notarial deed.
In Japan, a landowner has no obligation to register a Right of lease, so that it is common that a Right of lease is not registered at the Legal Affairs Bureau.
All of us globally face a difficult situation because of the Covid-19 virus, which has greatly affected our working style. I have already introduced the policy of working from home with good governance.
At the beginning, it was difficult to arrange working conditions, and maintain this system, evaluation and surveillance for the staff are essential, so a daily report and an online meeting are required on a daily basis, which will become a burden for some workers. However, I prioritise the trust and duty of care among staff, and now I manage it.
Our wellbeing is also important, because our social responsibility as a legal practitioner in current society is taken into account legally and morally more than in the past one.
The number of people dying with Covid-19 virus has been declining, and the UK vaccine programme seems working, but it is better to stay vigilant.